We investigate the pitch angle distributions of 0.15-1.58 MeV electrons observed during the 9-15 October 1990 storm measured by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft. This storm period is characterized by an enhancement in the electron flux at L approximate to 4 by more than an order of magnitude over the prestorm level. The overall change in flux at L approximate to 6.6 is small in comparison. Previous work shows that radial diffusion underestimates the flux enhancement by up to a factor of 5 for L less than or equal to 4.5 [Brautigam and Albert, 2000], indicating the need for an additional acceleration process. The pitch angle distributions presented here are examined for evidence of the acceleration mechanism. The distributions at L approximate to 2 are rounded and are dominated by Coulomb collisions. They show little variation during the storm. The distributions at L approximate to 3 are pancake-shaped before the storm, characteristic of pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss. During the main phase, they become broad and flat, and they evolve back into pancake distributions during the recovery phase. At L approximate to 4-6, the pitch angle distributions are characterized as butterfly distributions at storm onset, and they become broad flat top distributions during the recovery phase. The flat top distributions persist throughout the similar to3-day recovery phase and are observed in the region of highest flux enhancement. The flat top distributions are energy dependent and are broader at lower energies (30degrees-150degrees) than at higher energies (50degrees-130degrees). The higher energies exhibit a much faster fall off toward the loss cone than at lower energies. Inward radial diffusion should result in anisotropic distributions peaked near 90degrees and does not explain the observed energy dependence. Furthermore, the direction of diffusion is outward at higher energies. Model calculations of the pitch angles resonant with whistler mode waves show that flat top distributions are consistent with pitch angle and energy scattering in regions where f(pe)/f(ce)similar to1. Although radial diffusion may be very important for particle energization, the observed pitch angle distributions provide strong evidence that wave particle interactions play an important role in the energization process.
Sunshade geoengineering – the installation of reflective mirrors between the Earth and the Sun to reduce incoming solar radiation, has been proposed as a mitigative measure to counteract anthropogenic global warming. Although the popular conception is that geoengineering can re-establish a ‘natural’ pre-industrial climate, such a scheme would itself inevitably lead to climate change, due to the different temporal and spatial forcing of increased CO2 compared to reduced solar radiation. We investigate the magnitude and nature of this climate change for the first time within a fully coupled General Circulation Model. We find significant cooling of the tropics, warming of high latitudes and related sea ice reduction, a reduction in intensity of the hydrological cycle, reduced ENSO variability, and an increase in Atlantic overturning. However, the changes are small relative to those associated with an unmitigated rise in CO2 emissions. Other problems such as ocean acidification remain unsolved by sunshade geoengineering.
View post tag: Bangladesh Navy The navies of India and Bangladesh kicked off their first ever coordinated patrol (IN-BN CORPAT) from the Bangladesh port city of Chittagong on June 25.The Indian Navy sent frigate INS Satpura and corvette INS Kadmatt to take part in the patrol.Bangladesh contributed frigate Abu Bakr and corvette Dhaleshwari, while both navies also sent maritime patrol aircraft.The maiden CORPAT was officially inaugurated by Indian Navy Admiral Sunil Lanba, Chief of the Naval Staff on June 27. The CORPAT will also be instituted as an annual feature between the navies of both countries.A joint planning meeting with commanding officers of the participating ships and CSO to Commodore Commanding BN Flotilla was conducted at Chittagong.As part of cross visits, 46 sailors and seven officers from IN ships visited BNS Shaheed Mozzam and were briefed about the training facilities. Indian Navy personnel also visited BNS Bangabandhu and Bangladesh Naval Academy. In addition, trainees from Bangladesh Naval Academy visited the IN ships. View post tag: Indian Navy Share this article Photo: Photo: Indian Navy View post tag: CORPAT
Show Closed This production ended its run on Jan. 5, 2020 Waitress We love her like a table! Glee’s Jenna Ushkowitz took her first bow in Broadway’s Waitress on July 29, and she’s definitely rocking that apron. Ushkowitz has stepped into the role of Dawn for Kimiko Glenn, who is taking a leave of absence from the Tony-nominated tuner. Ushkowitz made her Great White Way debut at age nine in the 1996 revival of The King and I and was in the original production of Spring Awakening. She will star in Tom Gustafson’s forthcoming musical movie, Hello, Again. Check out her super cute first curtain call above, and be sure to catch her in the Sara Bareilles-scored musical! Jenna Ushkowitz(Photo: Emilio Madrid-Kuser) Related Shows View Comments
The thought of teenage drivers strikes fear into the hearts of parents everywhere. The dangers of talking on the cell phone or texting while driving adds even more worry.University of Georgia Cooperative Extension has created a program to address the fears of parents while preparing teenagers with the skills they need to drive safely. The Georgia Traffic Injury Prevention Institute’s Parents Reducing Injuries and Driver Error (P.R.I.D.E.) program has more than 200 instructors teaching classes for both parents and teenagers throughout the state.“P.R.I.D.E. helps parents learn what they need to do to help their teen drivers meet the state’s licensing requirements and become safer drivers,” said Frankie Jones, director of the GTPI.P.R.I.D.E. is a two-hour program that focuses on driver attitude, knowledge and behavior. It addresses seat belt use, crash dynamics, Georgia’s teen driving laws, parental influence and peer pressure. “One of the things that makes P.R.I.D.E. special is that it is the only program in the state that requires a parent or guardian to attend with the teenager,” Jones said. “Research shows that teen drivers who have parents involved in the driving process are less likely to be involved in a crash.”Kim Martinek, a resident of Roswell, Ga., hopes that her involvement in her daughter’s driving education will have lasting positive effects on her driving ability. Martinek, whose daughter, Alyssa, just passed her driving test and received her driver’s license, has all of the typical fears of parents of soon-to-be-drivers. “I am mainly nervous because of all the possible distractions in the car, like the radio and her friends,” Martinek said. “I also worry about the distractions her phone can cause and whether she will be able to focus on the road like she needs to.”Dana Porter, the P.R.I.D.E. program coordinator, agreed that a teenager’s phone poses special hazards to driving, especially texting while driving. Another problem the P.R.I.D.E. instructors noted is a limited understanding of Georgia’s laws by both parents and their teenagers. “Parents and teens just don’t fully understand the laws,” Porter said. “They might know a little bit, like the curfew requirement, but many do not know the passenger restrictions and other important laws that our program addresses.”“For instance, many parents and teens are aware that teen drivers are not allowed to have any passengers who are not immediate family during the first six months,” she said. “However, many people do not know that during the second six months, only one non-immediate family passenger is allowed, and after 12 months, only three non-family passengers are allowed.”She noted that after school lets out there are often cars packed with teens. If an SUV is loaded up with teenagers and a teenager is driving, “then they are violating the law,” she said.Besides a lack of knowledge about traffic laws, Jones added that many parents of soon-to-be drivers make common mistakes like not giving the teen their full attention on the road and not talking about all the costs involved in driving. “I’m not just talking about the monetary costs of things like insurance and gas,” she said, “but the costs of injuries and fatalities that also impact quality of life of all involved.”Jones noted that many parents don’t take their children out driving as often as they should. Although 40 hours is the minimum requirement for teens to get their license, “the more supervised practice a teen has, the safer he or she is behind the wheel,” she said.Martinek took her daughter driving as often as possible, and she was diligent in exposing Alyssa to different driving conditions, ranging from rain and snow to rush-hour traffic. “I also think it’s good for the parent to get in the car with their child after they get their license, just to check up on their driver ability,” Martinek said. “You can sometimes forget things after the test.”Although Martinek cannot help but worry when Alyssa is late getting home, she admitted that she is “more excited than nervous overall now that Alyssa can drive. She can take herself to places now.”“In terms of the value of the program, our evaluations indicate that we are definitely altering driving attitudes and behaviors for both parents and teens,” Jones said. “We are saving lives and reducing crashes, injuries and fatalities. One child who loses his or her life is one child too many.”Since the program started in 2003, approximately 9,000 teens, accompanied by at least one parent or guardian, have participated in P.R.I.D.E. There is no charge to participate in P.R.I.D.E., which is funded by grant support and operated by volunteer instructors.For more information about P.R.I.D.E., including classes in your area, go to www.ridesafegeorgia.org.
The FDA has a goal of reducing the overall noncompliance rate for each type of food establishment by 25% by 2010, using the 1998 survey as a baseline, according to the report. For example, in 1998, the overall noncompliance rate for all the risk variables in elementary schools was 20%; the FDA would like to reduce that to 15% by 2010. The agency plans to do a third nationwide survey in 2008. The new findings echo those of a similar survey conducted in 1998 and reported in 2000, according to the FDA. “The same risk factors and data items identified as problem areas in the 2000 report remain in need of priority attention,” the report says. “This indicates that industry and regulatory efforts to promote active managerial control of these risk factors must be strengthened.” Contaminated equipment was also common, according to the report. For example, failures in this category were observed in 21.9% of fast-food restaurants, 37.3% of full-service restaurants, 23.4% of delis, 24.4% of retail meat and poultry departments, 18.9% of hospitals, and 13.5% of elementary schools. For example, the FDA found failures to comply with handwashing guidelines in 73% of full-service restaurants and 34% of hospitals. Further, inspectors saw cases of noncompliance with guidelines for cleaning food-contact surfaces in 58% of retail deli departments and 25% of elementary schools. Within the general area of contaminated equipment, improper cleaning and sanitizing of food-contact surfaces was the most widespread specific problem. Noncompliance ranged from 25% in elementary schools to 35.2% in retail seafood departments, 37.2% in nursing homes, and 58% in deli departments. Sep 16, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – A nationwide survey by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggests that risk factors for foodborne disease, such as inadequate handwashing by workers and keeping food at unsafe temperatures, are very common in the nation’s restaurants, retail stores, and institutional food services. Observations by FDA personnel at more than 900 food operations in 2003 showed that sizable percentages of them failed to comply with guidelines for food holding time and temperature, personal hygiene, and keeping equipment clean, according to a 200-page FDA report released this week. In the personal hygiene category, inadequate handwashing was the most common specific problem in all nine types of facilities, the report says. For personal hygiene overall, samples of the noncompliance rates included 31.2% for fast-food restaurants, 41.7% for full-service restaurants, 23.5% for deli departments, and 17.5% for hospitals. Team members gathered information on 42 food safety variables by directly observing facility operations and, in some cases, by talking with managers and workers. The variables—described in the FDA Food Code—were grouped into several risk factors, including improper holding time and temperature, poor personal hygiene, inadequate cooking time, contaminated equipment/prevention of contamination, food from unsafe sources, and “other/chemical” hazards. Failure to heed guidelines for food holding times and temperatures appears to be the most common problem noted in the report. The FDA found problems of this kind in 63.8% of full-service restaurants, 64.4% of delis, 41.7% of fast-food restaurants, and 40.3% of hospitals. The most common specific problems were “improper cold holding of potentially hazardous food” (for example, not storing food at 41ºF or lower) and failure to date-mark refrigerated ready-to-eat foods after 24 hours. See also: Inadequate cooking time was a less common problem than most of the others, the FDA says. Inspectors reported it, for example, in 15.8% of full-service restaurants and 6.3% of hospitals. The use of food from unsafe sources was also reported relatively infrequently. The FDA survey team visited nine types of food establishments: fast-food and full-service restaurants; hospitals, nursing homes, and elementary schools; and retail deli, meat and poultry, seafood, and produce departments. The report notes that the ideal measure of food safety performance in the foodservice industry would be the actual level of foodborne illness. But because foodborne illness is “grossly underreported,” illness data are an unreliable indicator. Thus the FDA chose to assess foodborne disease risk factors, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The FDA compared food safety data from establishments that had a certified food protection manager from a recognized program with data from establishments that lacked such a manager. The comparison suggests that having a certified manager improves the control of certain risk factors, especially poor personal hygiene. This effect was seen most clearly in restaurants, meat and poultry departments, and produce departments, the report says. “FDA Report on the Occurrence of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors in Selected Institutional Foodservice, Restaurant, and Retail Food Store Facility Types (2004)”
See also: The miner, aged 29, became ill on Jul 4, was hospitalized 3 days later, and died Jul 14, the WHO said. He had cared for a 21-year-old coworker who had fallen ill with similar symptoms on Jun 27 and was hospitalized but later recovered. Nov 10, 2005, CIDRAP News story “Angola declares worst Marburg outbreak over” There is no vaccine or specific treatment for Marburg, a viral hemorrhagic fever similar to Ebola fever. Besides fever and weakness, early symptoms include severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, severe chest pain, sore throat, and cough, according to the WHO. The incubation period is 3 to 9 days. Contact with bodily fluids of infected people is the main risk factor for infection. The WHO said there is no indication of a need for restrictions on travel to or trade with Uganda. Aug 3 WHO news releasehttp://www.who.int/csr/don/2007_08_03/en/index.html Aug 3, 2007 (CIDRAP News) A Ugandan miner who died in mid-July had Marburg hemorrhagic fever, and another worker at the same mine has a suspected case, the World Health Organization announced today. The last major reported Marburg outbreak occurred in Angola from October 2004 to July 2005 and involved 252 cases, of which 227 were fatal. It is listed as the largest outbreak on record. The Ugandan Ministry of Health has sent rapid response teams to the mine area to investigate, with support from the WHO and other organizations, the WHO reported. From interviews with mine authorities, health officials have identified one more suspected Marburg case, plus two people who had a similar illness in mid-June but recovered, the WHO said. The mine is in western Uganda. All the miners under investigation for the disease had been at the mine continuously for 8 months, according to the WHO. No cases have been reported in healthcare workers. The disease was first seen in 1967 in German and Yugoslavian laboratory workers who had been exposed to green monkeys imported from Uganda. However, researchers have not been able to identify the virus’s primary animal reservoir between the rare outbreaks. WHO fact sheet on Marburg hemorrhagic feverhttp://www.who.int/csr/disease/marburg/factsheet/en/index.html The deceased man’s case was confirmed by laboratory tests at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Jul 30, the WHO reported.
Raheem Sterling fired Man City into a 1-0 lead against Arsenal (Picture: Getty)Neville stopped short of blaming Arsenal’s injury woes on their travel arrangements, but conceded flying so close to the match represented less than ideal preparation.He said: ‘Mari’s hamstring went then. I mean, I am not sure he would have kept up with Kyle Walker with his hamstring in full tact. Kyle Walker goes past him and watch his hamstring go there.More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing Arsenal‘I was stunned (by the decision to fly). I was thinking more of the risk of the weather, the storms we’ve got at the moment and what if they were unable to fly.‘Obviously it’s not ideal to get on a plane three hours before you play anyway, but it looks like Arsenal will lose two players from their starting XI inside 20 minutes.And it looks like David Luiz option or no option. He’s going to get a run out.’MORE: Mesut Ozil left out of Arsenal’s squad to face Manchester CityMORE: Arsenal boss Mikel Arteta explains why David Luiz was dropped for Manchester City clashFollow Metro Sport across our social channels, on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.For more stories like this, check our sport page. Gary Neville slams Arsenal decision as Mikel Arteta suffers double injury blow vs Man City Comment Granit Xhaka suffered an ankle injury five minutes into Arsenal’s match against Man City (Picture: Getty)Gary Neville was left ‘stunned’ by Arsenal’s decision to fly to Manchester just three hours before resuming their Premier League season at the Etihad Stadium.Mikel Arteta, returning to the club where he served as Pep Guardiola’s assistant for three-and-a-half years, sanctioned the decision to board a plane from Stanstead airport, despite the terrible weather conditions in Manchester. The Gunners boss made several controversial selection decisions, omitting Mesut Ozil from the matchday squad and leaving his most experienced player, David Luiz, on the subsitutes’ bench.Arteta was immediately forced to rethink his plans, however, when Granit Xhaka was forced off inside the first five minutes with an ankle injury after colliding with his team-mate Matteo Guendouzi. AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTArsenal’s problems were compounded little over 15 minutes later when January recruit Pablo Mari was forced off with a muscle strain, forcing Arteta to introduce Luiz to the fray. Metro Sport ReporterWednesday 17 Jun 2020 9:14 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link7.9kShares Advertisement Advertisement
Mr Henri Kuitunen has been named President & Chief Executive Officer of VR Group Ltd. He replaces Mr Panu Haapala, who became President on January 1, but died suddenly on March 15. Mr Albert Vilalta has been appointed President of the Spanish rail infrastructure authority GIF. Mr Francisco Ballesteros becomes Finance Director, and Mr Manuel Carbajosa Project Director for the Barcelona – Madrid high speed line.Mr Hiroumi Soejima has been elected President of Japan’s Railway Technical Research Institute, replacing Mr Masanori Ozeki who has retired. Mr Soejima studied mechanical engineering at the University of Tokyo and joined JNR in 1959. After heading JNR’s Rolling Stock Division and serving as Director General of Shinkansen Operations, he joined JR Central in 1987, becoming Executive Vice-President in June 1996. Mr José Enrique García-Romeu Fleta has been named Director General of Spanish narrow gauge operator Feve. Mr Adolfo Barrio Mozo becomes General Secretary.Mr Vaclav John has been named Commercial Director of Czech Railways. Mr Frantisek Nykles has been appointed Director of Infrastructure and Mr Jiri Sponar Personnel Manager.Mr Pierre Lombard, General Manager (Regional Management), Spoornet, was elected Chairman of the International Heavy Haul Association on April 10, replacing Mr John Reoch of Canac International. Mr Brian Bock, General Manager, Engineering, for Queensland Railways, has been elected Vice Chairman.Mr Yukitaka Ishii has been named Chairman of JR Kyushu, replacing Mr Toshiaki Yamashita. Mr Ishii will be replaced as President by Mr Koji Tanaka.Mr Richard Brown, Managing Director of British train operating company Midland Main Line, has been appointed Chief Executive of National Express Group’s Trains Division. NEG has named Mr Alastair McPherson as Managing Director of its ScotRail TOC, replacing Mr John Ellis, and Mr Charles Belcher from EWS has joined NEG as Managing Director of North London Railways in place of Mr David Watters.Mag Anton Hoser has taken over as General Manager of Austrian Federal Railways’ freight division.Mr Peter Young has become Acting Chairman of Australia’s National Rail Corp.Mr Frank Forcione has been appointed General Manager, Operations Support, at Amtrak West. He is succeeded as General Manager of Commuter Operations for CalTrain by Mr Donald L Saunders. Mr John Elliott has become Deputy Chairman of Queensland Rail Corp.Mr Chris Garnett is appointed Vice President, Rail, for Sea Containers Ltd; he is also Great North Eastern Railway Chief Executive.Mr Shojiro Nan-ya was confirmed as President of West Japan Railway on April 1. He joined JNR in 1964 after graduating in Economics from Tokyo University. After holding a variety of senior posts in labour relations, human resources and accounts he became Managing Director & Senior General Manager, Corporate Planning for JR-West in 1991. He was appointed Executive Vice President and Director of the Head Office in June 1994.Canadian National has abolished a tier of senior management as part of its move to centralise operations at Edmonton. Mr Keith Heller, formerly Senior Vice-President CN East, becomes Senior Vice-President, Line Operations, and Mr Rick Boyd, formerly Senior Vice-President CN West will oversee the changes. Mr Robert Dolan has been appointed Senior Vice-President, Corporate Services.
Brookville, IN—On Thursday, the Brookville Police Department responded to Jim True Ford to investigate a vehicle theft.According to employees, a black 1996 Ford F-250, pictured to the right, was stolen from the service lot sometime in the late evening hours of Saturday, June 15th.Officers are requesting anyone with information or knowledge of this incident, please contact The Brookville Police Department at (765) 647-4178. Persons who wish to provide information may remain anonymous